Dr Beatrice Krebs


Beatrice is an Associate Professor in Criminal Law, School of Law, University of Reading.


Previous Appointments
  • 2018 – Case Review Manager, Criminal Cases Review Commission (part-time secondment from my post at the University of Reading)
  • 2012 – 2017 – Lecturer in Law, School of Law, University of Reading
  • 2011 – 2012 – Tutor and Stipendiary Lecturer in Law, St Hilda’s College, Oxford – Departmental Lecturer in Tort Law, Oxford Law Faculty
  • 2009 – 2010 – Graduate Lecturer in Law, Corpus Christi College, Oxford

Alongside the above posts, I taught criminal law at various Oxford Colleges, including Harris Manchester College, Hertford College, and Lincoln College.

  • 2015 – DPhil, Thesis Title: “Joint Criminal Enterprise in English and German Law”, Corpus Christi College, Oxford (Supervised by Dr Grant Lamond; Examiners: Prof Bob Sullivan and Prof Andrew Ashworth)
  • 2013 – Fellow of the Higher Education Academy
  • 2008 – LLM, Columbia Law School, New York (Criminal Evidence, International and Comparative Criminal Law, White Collar Crime, Corporations, Federal Criminal Law, Legal Philosophy); Average Grade: A-
  • 2007 – BA (Jurisprudence), Lincoln College, Oxford – First Class Honours (ranked 11/232)
  • 2003 – Dipl.Jur/1. Juristisches Staatsexamen (First State Exam in Law) – Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster, Germany – Distinction
  • 2016 – Winner of the Impact Prize (Prosperity and Resilience Research Theme, University of Reading) for my work on joint enterprise liability
  • 2008 – Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar, Columbia Law School, New York – Parker School Certificate for Achievement in Foreign and Comparative Law, Columbia Law School, New York
  • 2007 – Partial Fee-Waiver Award (merit-based, 50%), Columbia Law School
  • 2007 – Gibbs Book Prize in Law for the best overall Finals performance in private law subjects, University of Oxford
  • 2004 – German-British Jurists’ Association Conference Scholarship

My research interests are in domestic, comparative and international criminal law. Much of my published work (see further below) has focused on a particularly troublesome principle known as parasitic accessory liability. This allows accomplices to be convicted of crimes as serious as murder committed by someone else that the accomplice foresaw but did not necessarily intend. It is recognised, in one form or another, in many common law jurisdictions. I assisted Felicity Gerry KC (of these Chambers), as an academic advisor who had long conducted research on parasitic accessory liability, to write what the BBC described as ‘legal history’: she persuaded the UK Supreme Court and Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in R v Jogee; Ruddock v The Queen (Jamaica) to declare parasitic accessory liability a ‘wrong turn’ of the common law. My research in the area of joint enterprise culminated in the 2020 publication of my edited collection on ‘Accessorial Liability After Jogee’ (Hart Publishing), the first volume of essays, written by leading academics and practitioners, to examine points of current interest with the post-Jogee law from academic, practical, and international legal perspectives.


  • Krebs, B.(ed), Accessorial Liability After Jogee (2020 Hart Publishing)
  • Krebs, B., ‘Oblique Intent, Foresight, and Authorisation’ (2018) UCL Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 7(2), 1-24
  • Krebs, B., ‘Mens rea in joint enterprise: a role for endorsement?’ (2015) Cambridge Law Journal, 74(3), 480-504
  • Krebs, B., ‘Justification and Excuse in Article 31(1) of the Rome Statute’ (2013) Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol 2(3), 382-410
  • Krebs, B., ‘Joint Criminal Enterprise’ (2010) Modern Law Review, 73(4), 578-604
  • Krebs, B., ‘Joint Enterprise Murder is Dead – Long Live Joint Enterprise Manslaughter?’ in B Krebs Accessorial Liability After Jogee (2020 Hart Publishing) 107-132
  • Krebs, B. and Cowley, C. (eds) Special Issue on Recklessness and Negligence, Criminal Law and Philosophy 1(14) 2020 
  • Krebs, B., ‘Rape, Consent and a Lie about Fertility’ (2020) Journal of Criminal Law, 84(6) 622-625
  • Krebs, B., ‘Written Jury Directions and Contributing to the Force of Numbers’ (2020) Journal of Criminal Law 84(2) 172-175
  • Krebs, B., ‘Diminished responsibility and unanimous psychiatric evidence’ (2019) Journal of Criminal Law, 83(5) 406-409
  • Krebs, B., ‘For want of a shoe her freedom was lost: judicial law reform and dashed hopes in R v Mitchell’ (2019) Journal of Criminal Law, 83(1) 1-4
  • Krebs, B., ‘Joint enterprise, murder and substantial injustice: the first successful appeal post-Jogee’ (2018) Journal of Criminal Law, 82(3), 209-211
  • Krebs, B., ‘Divided by a Common Purpose: Chan Kam Shing [2016] HKCFA 87’ (2017) Journal of Criminal Law, 81(4), 271-274
  • Krebs B., ‘Accessory liability: Persisting in error’ (2017) Cambridge Law Journal, 76(1), 8-11
  • Krebs, B., ‘Bohlander & Reed (eds), Participation in Crime – Domestic and Comparative Perspectives’ (2014) http://clcjbooks.rutgers.edu/books/participation-in-crime.html
  • Joint Criminal Enterprise in English and German Law (DPhil Thesis), Oxford University Research Archive (online), 336 pages, December 2015
  • 2018 – Society of Applied Philosophy – £3,000 awarded to Dr Christopher Cowley (University College Dublin) for an interdisciplinary (Law and Philosophy) workshop on Recklessness and Negligence which took place at Reading University in June 2018 (we were joint organisers and applied jointly for the funding)
  • 2017 – Building Outstanding Impact Support Programme (Reading) – £20,000 for a partial teaching-buy out to support secondment to the CCRC
  • 2016 – British Academy/Leverhulme Small Grants Scheme – £8,290 to fund a workshop on ‘Jogee – one year on’ held at Reading in June 2017
  • 2016 – Society of Legal Scholars Research Activities Fund – £420 to present a paper at the University of Edinburgh
  • 2013 – Research Endowment Trust Fund Award for Early Career Researchers (internal competition, Reading) – Partial teaching buy-out to support writing of research paper (published as article in 2015 by Cambridge Law Journal)
  • 2008 – Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) Doctoral Scholarship – Fees and £12,000 p.a. towards living costs during my doctoral studies
  • 2019 – University College Dublin, Symposium on Alexander Sarch’s book Criminally Ignorant, invited speaker (21 November)
  • 2019 – Criminal Conversations, King’s College London, invited speaker (24-26 June)
  • 2018 – Criminal Bar Association Conference; invited speaker (London, 24 November)
  • 2018 – Interdisciplinary (Law and Philosophy) workshop on Recklessness and Negligence, University of Reading (21-23 June), joint organiser
  • 2017 – Roundtable on the Crown Prosecution Service’s Draft Guidance on Secondary Liability; invited speaker (26 September, Mansfield College, Oxford)
  • 2017 – University College Dublin, workshop on Complicity; invited speaker (15-17 June)
  • 2017 – University of Reading, international workshop entitled ‘Jogee – one year on’; participants looked at developments in English, US, Australian and Hong Kong law (funded by BA/Leverhulme Small Grants scheme); organiser and contributor (9-10 June)
  • 2016 – University of Edinburgh, British Crime Historians Symposium 5; speaker (‘30 years of wrongly interpreting the mental element in joint criminal enterprise? – A critical analysis of the Supreme Court decision in R v Jogee [2016] UKSC 8 across time and jurisdictions’) (7-9 October)
  • 2016 – University of Liverpool, International Criminological Research Unit; ‘Joint Enterprise’ after Jogee: Reconsidering Law and Policy’; invited speaker (1 September)
  • 2014 – Panel Discussion (House of Commons) at the launch of the 2014 Report on Joint Enterprise by the Bureau of Investigative Journalism, invited panellist
  • 2012 – Criminal Law Discussion Group, University of Oxford, invited speaker (22 February)
  • 2020 – Guest Lecturer on Prof Andrew Simester and Dr John Stanton-Ife’s Criminal Law Theory module at King’s College, London
  • 2020 – Visiting Scholar, University of Bonn, Germany
  • 2019 – Contracted case note writer for The Journal of Criminal Law
  • 2015 – Academic Advisor to Felicity Gerry KC
  • 2013 – Peer reviewer for articles and book manuscripts for Modern Law Review, International Criminal Law Review, Legal Studies, Sydney Law Review, UNSW Law Journal, and Routledge and Hart Publishing.
  • 2011/2009 – Visiting Lecturer, Bucerius Law School Hamburg, teaching a course on ‘White Collar Crime’
  • 2008 – Part-time internship with Federal District Judge Denise I. Cote, Southern District of New York
  • 2008 – Research assistant to Professor George P. Fletcher, Cardozo Professor of Jurisprudence, Columbia Law School, New York
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